Similar articles
Advertisement
Advertisement

Pharmacology Mnemonics For The USMLE And Other Medical Examinations



Pulmonary infiltrations inducing drugs "Go BAN Me!": 
Gold 
Bleomycin/ Busulphan/ BCNU 
Amiodarone/ Acyclovir/ Azathioprine 
Nitrofurantoin 
Melphalan/ Methotrexate/ Methysergide 

MPTP: mechanism, effect MPTP: 
Mitochondrial Parkinson's-Type Poison. 
∑ A mitochondrial poison that elicits a Parkinson's-type effect. 

Antimuscarinics: members, action 
"Inhibits Parasympathetic And Sweat": 
Ipratropium Pirenzepine Atropine Scopolamine 
∑ Muscarinic receptors at all parasympathetic endings sweat glands in sympathetic. 

Teratogenic drugs: major non-antibiotics TAP CAP: 
Thalidomide Androgens Progestins Corticosteroids Aspirin & indomethacin Phenytoin 

Steroid side effects CUSHINGOID: 
Cataracts 
Ulcers 
Skin: striae, thinning, bruising 
Hypertension/ Hirsutism/ Hyperglycemia 
Infections 
Necrosis, avascular necrosis of the femoral head 
Glycosuria 
Osteoporosis, obesity 
Immunosuppression 
Diabetes 

Beta blockers with CYP2D6 polymorphic metabolism
"I Met Tim Carver, the metabolic polymorph": 
∑ The following beta blockers require dose adjustment due to CYP2D6 polymorphic metabolism: 
Metoprolol Timolol Carvedilol (in patients with lower or higher than normal CYP2D6 activity) 

Beta blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity 
Picture diabetic and asthmatic kids riding away on a cart that rolls on pinwheels. Pindolol and Carteolol have high and moderate ISA respectively, making them acceptable for use in some diabetics or asthmatics despite the fact that they are non-seletive beta blockers. 

Muscarinic effects SLUG BAM: 
Salivation/ Secretions/ Sweating 
Lacrimation 
Urination 
Gastrointestinal upset 
Bradycardia/ Bronchoconstriction/ Bowel movement 
Abdominal cramps/ Anorexia 
Miosis 

Sulfonamide: major side effects
∑ Sulfonamide side effects: 
Steven-Johnson syndrome 
Skin rash 
Solubility low (causes crystalluria) 
Serum albumin displaced (causes newborn kernicterus and potentiation of other serum albumin-binders like warfarin) 

Epilepsy types, drugs of choice:
"Military General Attacked Weary Fighters Pronouncing 'Veni Vedi Veci' After Crushing Enemies": 
∑ Epilepsy types: Myoclonic Grand mal Atonic West syndrome Focal Petit mal (absence) 
∑ Respective drugs: Valproate  Valproate  Valproate ACTH Carbamazepine Ethosuximide 

Quinolones [and Fluoroquinolones]: mechanism
"Topple the Queen": Quinolone interferes with Topoisomerase II.

Beta blockers: 
B1 selective vs. B1-B2 non-selective 
A through N: B1 selective: Acebutalol, Atenolol, Esmolol, Metoprolol. 
O through Z: B1, B2 non-selective: Pindolol, Propanalol, Timolol. 

Ribavirin: indications RIBAvirin: 
RSV 
Influenza B 
Arenaviruses (Lassa, Bolivian, etc.) 
Hypertension: treatment ABCD: 
ACE inhibitors/ AngII antagonists (sometimes Alpha agonists also)  Beta blockers 
Calcium antagonists 
Diuretics 

Narcotics: side effects "SCRAM if you see a drug dealer": Synergistic CNS depression with other drugs 
Constipation 
Respiratory depression 
Addiction 
Miosis 
Sex hormone drugs: male "Feminine Males Need Testosterone": 
Fluoxymesterone 
Methyltestosterone 
Nandrolone 
Testosterone 

Ca++ channel blockers: uses CA++ MASH: 
Cerebral vasospasm/ CHF 
Angina 
Migranes 
Atrial flutter, fibrillation 
Supraventricular tachycardia 
Hypertension 
∑ Alternatively: "CHASM": 
Cererbral vasospasm / CHF 
Hypertension 
Angina 
Suprventricular tachyarrhythmia 
Migranes 

Disulfiram-like reaction inducing drugs "PM PMT" as in Pre Medical Test in the PM: 
Procarbazine 
Metronidazole 
Cefo (Perazone, Mandole, Tetan). 

Delerium-causing drugs ACUTE CHANGE IN MS: 
Antibiotics (biaxin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin) 
Cardiac drugs (digoxin, lidocaine) 
Urinary incontinence drugs (anticholinergics) 
Theophylline 
Ethanol 
Corticosteroids 
H2 blockers 
Antiparkinsonian drugs 
Narcotics (esp. mepridine) 
Geriatric psychiatric drugs 
ENT drugs 
Insomnia drugs 
NSAIDs (eg indomethacin, naproxin) 
Muscle relaxants 
Seizure medicines 

Morphine: side-effects MORPHINE: 
Myosis 
Out of it (sedation) 
Respiratory depression 
Pneumonia (aspiration) 
Hypotension 
Infrequency (constipation, urinary retention) 
Nausea 
Emesis 

Therapeutic dosage: toxicity values for most commonly monitored medications 
"The magic 2s": 
Digitalis (.5-1.5) Toxicity = 2. 
Lithium (.6-1.2) Toxicity = 2. 
Theophylline (10-20) Toxicity = 20. 
Dilantin (10-20) Toxicity = 20. 
APAP (1-30) Toxicity = 200. 

Diuretics: 
thiazides: indications "CHIC to use thiazides": 
CHF 
Hypertension 
Insipidous 
Calcium calculi 

Migraine: prophylaxis drugs 
"Very Volatile Pharmacotherapeutic Agents For Migraine Prophylaxis": 
Verpamil 
Valproic acid 
Pizotifen 
Amitriptyline 
Flunarizine 
Methysergide 
Propranolol 

Adrenoceptors: vasomotor function of alpha vs. beta
ABCD: 
Alpha = Constrict. 
Beta = Dilate. 

Antiarrhythmics: classification 
I to IV MBA College 
∑ In order of class I to IV: 
Membrane stabilizers (class I) 
Beta blockers 
Action potential widening agents 
Calcium channel blockers 

Opiods: mu receptor effects "MD CARES": 
Miosis 
Dependency 
Constipation 
Analgesics 
Respiratory depression 
Euphoria 
Sedation 

Cancer drugs: time of action between DNA->mRNA ABCDEF: Alkylating agents 
Bleomycin 
Cisplastin 
Dactinomycin/ Doxorubicin 
Etoposide 
Flutamide and other steroids or their antagonists (eg tamoxifen, leuprolide) 

Busulfan: features ABCDEF: 
Alkylating agent 
Bone marrow suppression s/e 
CML indication 
Dark skin (hyperpigmentation) s/e 
Endrocrine insufficiency (adrenal) s/e 
Fibrosis (pulmonary) s/e 

Tricyclic antidepressants: members worth knowing
"I have to hide, the CIA is after me": 
Clomipramine Imipramine Amitrptyline 
∑ If want the next 3 worth knowing, the DNDis also after me:
Desipramine Norrtriptyline Doxepin 

Torsades de Pointes: drugs causing APACHE: 
Amiodarone Procainamide Arsenium Cisapride Haloperidol Eritromycin 

Serotonin syndrome: components Causes HARM: 
Hyperthermia Autonomic instability (delirium) Rigidity Myoclonus 

Tetracycline: teratogenicity 
TEtracycline is a  TEratogen that causes staining of  TEeth in the newborn. 

Patent ductus arteriosus: treatment 
"Come In and Close the door": INdomethacin is used to Close PDA. 

Physostigmine vs. neostigmine LMNOP: 
Lipid soluble 
Miotic 
Natural 
Orally absorbed well 
Physostigmine 
∑ Neostigmine, on the contrary, is:  
Water soluble 
Used in myesthenia gravis 
Synthetic 
Poor oral absorption 

Beta 1 selective blockers
"BEAM ONE up, Scotty": 
Beta 1 blockers: 
Esmolol 
Atenolol 
Metropolol
 
Antirheumatic agents (disease modifying): members
CHAMP: 
Cyclophosphamide 
Hydroxycloroquine and choloroquinine 
Auranofin and other gold compounds 
Methotrexate 
Penicillamine 

Auranofin, aurothioglucose: category and indication
Aurum is latin for "gold" (gold's chemical symbol is Au). 
Generic Aur- drugs (Auranofin, Aurothioglucose) are gold compounds. 
∑ If didn't learn yet that gold's indication is rheumatoid arthritis, AUR- Acts Upon Rheumatoid. 

Antiarrhythmics: class III members  BIAS: 
Bretylium 
Ibutilide 
Amiodarone 
Sotalol 

MAOIs: indications MAOI'S: 
Melancholic [classic name for atypical depression] 
Anxiety 
Obesity disorders [anorexia, bulemia] 
Imagined illnesses [hypochondria] 
Social phobias 
∑ Listed in decreasing order of importance. 
∑ Note MAOI is inside MelAnchOlIc. 

SIADH-inducing drugs ABCD: 
Analgesics: opioids, NSAIDs 
Barbiturates 
Cyclophosphamide/ Chlorpromazine/ Carbamazepine 
Diuretic (thiazide) 

K+ increasing agents K-BANK: 
K-sparing diuretic 
Beta blocker 
ACEI 
NSAID 
K supplement 

Reserpine action: 
Reserpine depletes the Reserves of catecholamines [and serotonin]. 

Succinylcholine: 
action, use Succinylcholine gets Stuck to Ach receptor, then Sucks ions in through open pore. You Suck stuff in through a mouth-tube, and drug is used for intubation. 
Beta-blockers: side effects "BBC Loses Viewers In Rochedale": Bradycardia 
Bronchoconstriction 
Claudication 
Lipids 
Vivid dreams & nightmares 
-ve Inotropic action 
Reduced sensitivity to hypoglycaemia 
Cisplatin: major side effect, action "Ci-Splat-In": 
Major side effect: Splat (vomiting sound)--vomiting so severe that anti-nausea drug needed. Action: Goes Into the DNA strand. 

Vir-named drugs: use"-vir at start, middle or end means for virus": ∑ Drugs: 
Abacavir, 
Acyclovir, 
Amprenavir, 
Cidofovir, 
Denavir, 
Efavirenz, 
Indavir, 
Invirase, 
Famvir, 
Ganciclovir, 
Norvir, 
Oseltamivir, 
Penciclovir, 
Ritonavir, 
Saquinavir, 
Valacyclovir, 
Viracept, 
Viramune, 
Zanamivir, 
Zovirax. 

Phenobarbitone: side effects
Children are annoying (hyperkinesia, irritability, insomnia, aggression). 
Adults are dosy (sedation, dizziness, drowsiness). 

Prazocin: usage 
Prazocin sounds like an acronym of "praszz zour urine". 
Therefore Prazocin used for urinary retention in BPH. 

Opioids: effects BAD AMERICANS: 
Bradycardia & hypotension 
Anorexia 
Diminished pupilary size 
Analgesics 
Miosis 
Euphoria 
Respiratory depression 
Increased smooth muscle activity (biliary tract constriction) Constipation 
Ameliorate cough reflex 
Nausea and vomiting 
Sedation 

TB: antibiotics used
STRIPE: 
STreptomycin Rifampicin Isoniazid Pyrizinamide Ethambutol 

Phenytoin: adverse effects PHENYTOIN:
P-450 interactions 
Hirsutism 
Enlarged gums 
Nystagmus 
Yellow-browning of skin 
Teratogenicity 
Osteomalacia 
Interference with B12 metabolism (hence anemia) 
Neuropathies: vertigo, ataxia, and headache 
 
Narcotic antagonists
The Narcotic Antagonists are NAloxone and NAltrexone. ∑ Important clinically to treat narcotic overdose. 

Thrombolytic agents USA: 
Urokinase Streptokinase Alteplase (tPA) 

Routes of entry: most rapid ways meds/toxins enter body 
"Stick it, Sniff it, Suck it, Soak it": 
Stick = Injection 
Sniff = inhalation 
Suck = ingestion 
Soak = absorption 

Asthma drugs: leukotriene inhibitor action 
zAfirlukast: Antagonist of lipoxygenase 
zIlueton: Inhibitor of LT receptor 

Direct sympathomimetic catecholamines DINED: 
Dopamine 
Isoproterenol 
Norepinephrine 
Epinephrine 
Dobutamine 

Anticholinergic side effects
"Know the ABCD'S of anticholinergic side effects": 
Anorexia 
Blurry vision 
Constipation/ Confusion 
Dry Mouth 
Sedation/ Stasis of urine 

Atropine use: tachycardia or bradycardia
"A goes with B": Atropine used clinically to treat Bradycardia. 

Bleomycin: action 
"Bleo-Mycin Blows My DNA to bits": Bleomycin works by fragmenting DNA (blowing it to bits). My DNA signals that its used for cancer (targeting self cells). 

Aspirin: side effects ASPIRIN: 
Asthma 
Salicyalism 
Peptic ulcer disease/ Phosphorylation-oxidation uncoupling/ PPH/ Platelet disaggregation/ Premature closure of PDA 
Intestinal blood loss 
Reye's syndrome 
Idiosyncracy 
Noise (tinnitus) 

Lupus: drugs inducing it HIP: 
Hydralazine 
INH 
Procanimide 

Vigabatrin: mechanism Vi-GABA-Tr-In: 
Via GABA Transferase Inhibition 

Morphine: effects at mu receptor PEAR: 
Physical dependence 
Euphoria 
Analgesia 
Respiratory depression 

Enoxaprin (prototype low molecular weight heparin): action, monitoring EnoXaprin only acts on factor Xa. Monitor Xa concentration, rather than APTT. 

Beta-1 vs Beta-2 receptor location "You have 1 heart and 2 lungs":  
Beta-1 are therefore primarily on heart. Beta-2 primarily on lungs. 

SSRIs: side effects SSRI: 
Serotonin syndrome 
Stimulate CNS 
Reproductive disfunctions in male 
Insomnia 

Ipratropium: action Atropine is buried in the middle: 
iprAtropium, so it behaves like Atropine. 

Warfarin: action, monitoring WePT: 
Warfarin works on the extrinsic pathway and is monitored by PT. 

Propranolol and related '-olol' drugs: usage"olol" is just two backwards lower case b's. Backward b's stand for "beta blocker". ∑ Beta blockers include acebutolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, oxprenolol, propranolol. 

Depression: 5 drugs causing it PROMS: 
Propranolol 
Reserpine 
Oral contraceptives 
Methyldopa 
Steroids 

Lead poisoning: presentation ABCDEFG: 
Anemia 
Basophilic stripping 
Colicky pain 
Diarrhea 
Encephalopathy 
Foot drop 
Gum (lead line) 
 

Myasthenia gravis: edrophonium vs. pyridostigmine 
eDrophonium is for Diagnosis. 
pyRIDostigmine is to get RID of symptoms. 

Morphine: effects MORPHINES: 
Miosis 
Orthostatic hypotension 
Respiratory depression 
Pain supression 
Histamine release/ Hormonal alterations 
Increased ICT 
Nausea 
Euphoria 
Sedation 

Inhalation anesthetics SHINE: 
Sevoflurane 
Halothane 
Isoflurane 
Nitrous oxide 
Enflurane 
∑ If want the defunct Methoxyflurane too, make it MoonSHINE.

Cholinergics (eg organophosphates): effects
If you know these, you will be "LESS DUMB": 
Lacrimation 
Excitation of nicotinic synapses 
Salivation 
Sweating 
Diarrhea 
Urination 
Micturition 
Bronchoconstriction 

Benzodiazapines: ones not metabolized by the liver (safe to use in liver failure) LOT: Lorazepam Oxazepam Temazepam 

Benzodiazepines: actions 
"Ben SCAMs Pam into seduction not by brain but by muscle": 
Sedation 
anti-Convulsant 
anti-Anxiety 
Muscle relaxant 
Not by brain: No antipsychotic activity. 

Botulism toxin: action, related bungarotoxin 
Action: "Botulism Bottles up the Ach so it can't be the released": 
Related bungarotoxin: "Botulism is related to Beta Bungarotoxin (beta-, not alpha-bungarotoxin--alpha has different mechanism). 

Teratogenic drugs "W/ TERATOgenic": 
Warfarin 
Thalidomide 
Epileptic drugs: phenytoin, valproate, carbamazepine 
Retinoid 
ACE inhibitor 
Third element: lithium 
OCP and other hormones (eg danazol) 

Gynaecomastia-causing drugs DISCOS: 
Digoxin 
Isoniazid 
Spironolactone 
Cimetidine 
Oestrogens 
Stilboestrol 

Benzodiazepenes: drugs which decrease their metabolism 
"I'm Overly Calm": 
Isoniazid 
Oral contraceptive pills 
Cimetidine 
∑ These drugs increase calming effect of BZDs by retarding metabolism. 

Anesthesia: 4 stages "Anesthesiologists Enjoy S & M": 
Analgesia 
Excitement 
Surgical anesthesia 
Medullary paralysis 

4-Aminopyradine (4-AP) use"4-AP is For AP": 
For AP (action potential) propagation in Multiple Sclerosis. 

Osmotic diuretics: members GUM: 
Glycerol 
Urea 
Mannitol 

Sodium valproate: side effects VALPROATE: 
Vomiting 
Alopecia 
Liver toxicity 
Pancreatitis/ Pancytopenia 
Retention of fats (weight gain) 
Oedema (peripheral oedema) 
Appetite increase 
Tremor 
Enzyme inducer (liver) 

Nitrofurantoin: major side effects NitroFurAntoin: 
Neuropathy (peripheral neuropathy) 
Fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis) 
Anemia (hemolytic anemia) 
Zafirlukast, Montelukast, Cinalukast: 
mechanism, usage"Zafir-luk-ast, Monte-luk-ast, Cina-luk-ast": ∑ Anti-Lukotrienes for Asthma. 
∑ Dazzle your oral examiner: Zafirlukast antagonizes leukotriene-4. 
Zero order kinetics drugs (most common ones) "PEAZ (sounds like pees) out a constant amount": 
Phenytoin 
Ethanol 
Aspirin 
Zero order 
∑ Someone that pees out a constant amount describes zero order kinetics (always the same amount out) 

Hepatic necrosis: drugs causing focal to massive necrosis
"Very Angry Hepatocytes": 
Valproic acid 
Acetaminophen 
Halothane 

Steroids: side effects BECLOMETHASONE: 
Buffalo hump 
Easy bruising 
Cataracts 
Larger appetite 
Obesity 
Moonface 
Euphoria 
Thin arms & legs 
Hypertension/ Hyperglycaemia 
Avascular necrosis of femoral head 
Skin thinning 
Osteoporosis 
Negative nitrogen balance 
Emotional liability 

Amiodarone: action, side effects 6 P's: 
Prolongs action potential duration 
Photosensitivity 
Pigmentation of skin 
Peripheral neuropathy 
Pulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis 
Peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 is inhibited -> hypothyroidism 

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors:
Members "PIT of despair": 
Phenelzine 
Isocarboxazid 
Tranylcypromine ∑
A pit of despair, since MAOs treat depression

Warfarin: metabolism SLOW: 
∑ Has a slow onset of action. 
∑ A quicK Vitamin K antagonist, though. 
Small lipid-soluble molecule 
Liver: site of action 
Oral route of administration. 
Warfarin 


Propythiouracil (PTU): 
Mechanism It inhibits PTU: 
Peroxidase/ Peripheral deiodination 
Tyrosine iodination Union (coupling) 


Antibiotics contraindicated during pregnancy  MCAT: 
Metronidazole 
Chloramphenicol 
Aminoglycoside 
Tetracycline 

Beta-blockers: 
nonselective beta-blockers"Tim Pinches His Nasal Problem" 
(because he has a runny nose...): 
Timolol 
Pindolol 
Hismolol 
Naldolol 
Propranolol 

Methyldopa: 
side effects METHYLDOPA: 
Mental retardation 
Electrolyte imbalance 
Tolerance 
Headache/ Hepatotoxicity psYcological upset 
Lactation in female 
Dry mouth 
Oedema 
Parkinsonism 
Anaemia (haemolytic) 

Lithium: side effects  LITH: 
Leukocytosis 
Insipidus [diabetes insipidus, tied to polyuria] 
Tremor/ Teratogenesis 
Hypothyroidism 

Respiratory depression inducing drugs "STOP breathing": 
Sedatives and hypnotics 
Trimethoprim 
Opiates 
Polymyxins 

Benzodiazepenes: antidote "Ben is off with the flu": 
Benzodiazepine effects off with Flumazenil. 

Advertisement



Log in to Like & Comment

 2 likes
 
 






joshua2006 (Basic)   a month ago
Educating


joshua2006 (Basic)   a month ago
Educating


joshua2006 (Basic)   a month ago
Educating


joshua2006 (Basic)   a month ago
Educating


Bennyedwin99 (Basic)   3 weeks ago
Well nice


Bennyedwin99 (Basic)   3 weeks ago
Great


engrhenry (Basic)   3 weeks ago
Easy


Dasod (Basic)   3 weeks ago
Smh


Bkay (Basic)   3 weeks ago
Nice one


Handwriting (Basic)   3 weeks ago
Love it




Advertisement

Articles that may interest you


Pathology Mnemonics and Tips for the USMLE and Other Medical Examinations

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) subtype classification Each subtype has 2 or 3 causes, plus something 1 or 2 more items.MEN I is disease of 3 P's: ...

 


Biochemistry Mnemonics and Tips for the USMLE and Other Medical Examinations

Porphyrias: acute intermittent porphyria symptoms 5 P's:Pain in abdomenPolyneuropathyPsychologial abnormalitiesPink urinePrecipitated by drugs (eg bar...

 


Immunology Mnemonics and Tips for the USMLE and Other Medical examinations

HLA-DR genetic predisposition immune disease examplesHLA-DR:Hashimoto's diseaseLeukemia/ LupusAutoimmune adrenalitis/ Anemia (pernicious)Diabetes insi...

 


Histology Mnemonics for the USMLE and Other Medical Examinations

Epidermis layers "Come, Let's Get Sun Burned": · From superficial to deep: Corneum Lucidum Granulosum Spinosum Basale [Germinativum] ·...

 


Behavioral Science Mnemonics for the USMLE & Other Medical Examinations

Premature ejaculation: treatment 2 S's:SSRIs [eg: fluoxitime]Squeezing technique [glans pressure before climax]· More detail with 2 more S's:Sensate-...

 

Advertisement

Uploads that may interest you

In his most extraordinary book, “one of the great clinical writers of the twentieth century” (The New York Times) recounts the case histories of patients lost in the bizarre, apparently inescapable world of neurological disorders

USMLE Mnemonics.zip  

USMLE Mnemonics.zip


Medical and USMLE Mnemonics for various subjects. You can manipulate them to suit your taste. Great USMLE and Medical Mnemonics. Contents are in Document formats

Gastroenterology Review Questions CRASH Medical Review Series for USMLE Step 1 and 2 and Medical exams. Gastroenterology is a field of medicine that focuses on the Digestive system. It is a combo of two words: Gastro, meaning the stomach and Entero, for the intestine. Basically, the word tried to combine the largest parts of the gastrointestinal system. Do not forget that the mouth, alimentary canal and the anus are also part of Gastroenteric system.

Pharmacology Flash Cards for Medical Studies and USMLE. This is really useful for medical examinations

Biochemistry Flash Cards for Medical Studies and USMLE. This is really useful for medical examinations

Advertisement

Loading...
 
 | 
 | 
Policy
 | 
Contact us
 | 
© 2020