Useful Microbiology Mnemonics Suitable For The USMLE And Medical Exams

Useful Microbiology Mnemonics Suitable For The USMLE And Medical Exams


Useful Microbiology Mnemonics Suitable For The USMLE And Medical Exams Abel  

3 years ago

~17.7 mins read

Gram positive stain

Gram Positives Stain Purple (violet-blue) because of their thick Peptidoglycan layer

 

UTI-causing microorganisms

KEEPS:

Klebsiella

Enterococcus faecalis/ Enterobacter cloacae

E. coli

Pseudomonas aeroginosa/ Proteus mirabilis

Staphylococcus saprophyticcus/ Serratia marcescens

 

Gram+: bacterial cell wall.

Gram+ has: +hick pepidoglycan layer. +eichoic acid in wall.

Gram+ has: +eichoic acid in wall.

 

Klebsiella details

You tell the patient: "Get UPS you fat alcoholic":

UTI

Pneumonia

Sepsis

Fat capsule

Get up=nonmotile since no flagella.

Alcoholic=commonly seen in alcoholic and nosocomial patients.

 

Listeria: motility

Istanbul sounds like Listambul = list + tumble.

Listeria has tumbling motility.

 

Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis: classic presentation

"Sore throat, Face bloat, Pi$$ coke":

Sore throat: 1 week ago

Face bloat: facial edema

Pi$$ coke: coke-coloured urine

Alternatively, short version: "Throatbloat and coke".

 

Neisseria: fermentation of N. gonorrhoeae vs. N. meningitidis

Gonorrhoeae: Glucose fermenter only.

MeninGitidis: Maltose and Glucose fermenter.

Maltose fermentation is a useful property to know, since it's the classic test to distinguish the Neisseria types.

 

Vibrio: motility

"Vibrio Vibrates":

Vibrio is a genus of actively motile bacteria.

 

Gram staining: mechanism

"Murein gets the red out" [Allusion to an old eye-wash slogan]:

Peptidoglycan (aka murein) remains purple during Gram staining.
The Gram negatives, devoid of murein, are red. Thus, murein prevents redness and are purple (positive).

- or just say Pur (Poor) Murein = Purple Murein 

 

Staphylococci: Novobiocin test to distinguish coagulase negative staphylococci

Staph epidermidis stays away from the novobiocin disc like an epidemic.

· Therefore, epidermidis is sensitive to novobiocin.

Staph saprophyticus, much friendlier, comes up to the disc and says, "'sap?'" [short for "whassup?", ie "what's up"].

· Therefore, saprophyticus is novobiocin resistant.

 

Streptococci: classification by hemolytic ability

Gamma: Garbage (no hemolytic activity).

Alpha: Almost (almost lyse, but incomplete).

Beta: Best (complete lysis).

 

Common cold: viral causes

"Common cold (acute infectious rhinitis, coryza) is

PRIMArily caused by":

Paramyxoviruses

Rhinoviruses

Influenza viruses

Myxoviruses

Adenoviruses

 

RNA viruses: negative stranded

"Orthodox Rhabbi's Party Around Fine Bunnies":

Orthomyxo

Rhabdo

Paramyxo

Arena

Filo 

Bunya

 

RNA viruses: positive stranded

"Pico Called FlaviTo Return Renzo's Corona":

Picorna Calici Flavi Toga Retro ReCorona

 

Streptococcus pyrogenes: antibodySPAM:

Streptococcus Pyogenes: Antibody to M protein.

 

Trypanosoma brucei: disease caused

"I went on a TRYP to AFRICA":

TRYPanosoma brucei causes AFRICAn sleeping sickness.

 

DNA viruses: morphology rule of thumbDNA:

Double-stranded Nuclear replication 'Anhedral symmetry

· Rule breakers: pox (cytoplasmic), parvo (single-stranded).

 

Proteus: disease caused

Firstly, "PROTeus hates PROTons":

So what does it do to fight the protons? It has a urease that raises the pH. Urea is in urine, so Proteus causes UTIs.

 

E. coli: diseases caused in presence of virulence factors DUNGDiarrhea

UTI

Neonatal meningitis

Gram negative sepsis

· Dung, since contract E. coli from dung-contaminated water.

 

Kidney transplant virus

"Borrowed Kidney":

BK virus is associated with kidney transplants.

 

Clostridium difficile: disease caused

"Difficult to be in a Closet with someone having explosive foul smelling diarrhea, because it would smell and there would be no air in there. Clostridium Difficile causes explosive foul smelling diarrhea and is an anaeorbe (no air).

 

Urease positive organisms PUNCH:

Proteus (leads to alkaline urine)

Ureaplasma (renal calculi)

Nocardia

Cryptoccocus (the fungus)

Helicobacter pylori

 

Pneumonia: acute pneumonia infiltrates from different causes

"Pyrogenic=PMN, Miscellaneous=Mononuclear":

Acute pneumonia caused by Pyogenic bacteria: PMN infiltrate.

Acute pneumonia caused by Miscellaneous microbes: Mononuclear infiltrate.

 

Pseudomonas details· Imagine a hospitalized patient with the following.

Patient: bug commonly infects nosocomial.

Oxygen tank: oxidase positive.

IV bag: has glucose and lactose, so its OK to give because its a non-lactose fermenter.

Why giving oxygen? Because it commonly causes pneumonia.

IV in the arm: supposed to signify sepsis.

The foley: UTI.

Burn on his foot: can infect burns. 

 

Entameoba histolytica: disease caused and action

EntAmoeba causes Amoebic dysEntery.

Action: histo (cell) lytic (burst), so it bursts cells.

 

Obligate anaerobes: members worth knowingABC:

Actinomyces

Bacteroides

Clostridium

 

Streptococci: Quellung reaction: positive sign, Strep type confirmed"Quell-lung":

Quell: Capsules swell [+ve test].

Lung: S. pnuemonia [type confirmed].

· You get pneumonia in your lung.

 

Nematodes: ones spreading by egg ingestion

"ATE eggs":

Ascaris Lumbricoides

Trichuris trichuira

Enterobius vermicularis spread by ingestion of eggs (vs skin invasion or insect bite)

 

Tetanus: treatment for infection

SAD RAT:

Sedation

Antitoxin

Debridement

Relaxant

Antibiotic

Tracheostomy

 

Mycobacterium tuberculosis: culture identification

"Rough, Tough, Buff":

Rough: colony isn't smooth but rough like breadcrumbs.

Tough: colony stuck to plate well, and tough to remove.

Buff: buff is a color, a cream/coffee shade.

 

Streptococcus pyogenes: virulence factors = SMASHEDStreptolysins

M protein

Anti-C5a peptidase

Streptokinase

Hyaluronidase

Exotoxin

DNAses

 

Psedomonas aeruginosa: features AERUGINOSA:

Aerobic

Exotoxin A

Rod/ Resistance

UTIs, burns, injuries

Green-blue dressings

Iron-containing lesions

Negative gram

Odor of grapes

Slime capsule sometimes (in CF pt)

Adherin pili

 

Influenza infection: clinical manifestations

"Having Flu Symptoms Can Make Moaning Children A Nightmare":

Headache

Fever

Sore throat

Chills

Myalgias

Malaise

Cough

Anorexia

Nasal congestion

 

Meningitis: risk factors

"Can Induce Severe Attacks OHead PAINS":

Cancer

Immunocompromised state

Sinusitis

Age extremes

Otitis

Head trauma

Parameningeal infection

Alcoholism

Infections (systemic, esp.
respiratory)

Neurosurgical procedures

Splenectomy

 

Endocarditis: indications for surgery PUS RIVER:

Prosthetic valve endocarditis (most cases)

Uncontrolled infection

Supporative local complications with conduction abnormalities

Resection of mycotic aneurysm

Ineffective antimicrobial therapy (eg Vs fungi)

Valvular damage (significant)

Embolization (repeated systemic)

Refractory congestive heart failure

 

Endocarditis: causes of culture negative endocarditis

"With Negative Tests, Investigators Should Focus Attention Somewhere Meaningful":

Wrong diagnosis

Noninfectious endocarditis

Timing (cultures drawn at end of chronic course)

obligate Intracellular organisms

Slow growing fastidious organisms

Fungal infection

Antibiotic used previously

Subacute right-sided endocarditis

Mural endocarditis

 

Endocarditis: lab results suggesting it

"High Tech Lab Results Point AEndocarditis":

Hematuria

Thrombocytopenia

Leukocytosis, -penia

Red blood cell casta

Proteinuria

Anemia

Elevated ESR

 

Vaccines types: STARK:

Subunit

Toxoid

Attenuated [live]

Recombinant

Killed [inactivated]

 

Streptococcus pyogenes causes NIPPLES:

Necrotising fasciitis and myositis

Impetigo

Pharyngitis

Pneumonia

Lymphangitis

Erysipelas and cellulitis

Scarlet fever/ Streptococcal TSS

 

AIDS pathogens (T-cell suppression) worth knowing

"The Major Pathogens Concerning Complete T-Cell Collapse":

Toxoplasma gondii

M. avium intracellulare

Pneumocystis carinii

Candida albicans Cryptococcus neoformans

Tuberculosis CMV Cryptosporidium parvum

 

Capsulated bacteria

"Some Bacteria Have An Effective Paste Surrounding Membrane Yielding Pseudo Fort, Bypassing Killing":

Strep pneumonia Bacteroides H. influenza Anthrax (B. anthracis) E. coli Pasteurella Salmonella Menigitidis (N. Menigitidis) Yersinia pestis Pseudomonas Francisella Brucella Klebsiella

 

Food poisoning:

Bug that induce food poisoning

"Eating Contaminated Stuff Causes Very Big Smelly Vomit":

E. coli O157-H7 [undercooked meat, esp. hamburgers]

Clostridium botulinum [canned foods]

Salmonella [poultry, meat, eggs]

Vibrio parahaemolyticus [seafood] 

Bacillus cereus [reheated rice]

Staphylococcus aureus [meats, mayo, custard]

Clostridium perfringens [reheated meat]

Vibrio vulnificus [seafood]

 

Trichomaniasis: features  

5 F's:

Flagella

Frothy discharge

Fishy odor (sometimes)

Fornication (STD)

Flagyl (metronidazole) Rx

 

Chlamydia: elementary vs. initial body location

Elementary: Extracellular

Initial: Intracellular

 

HIV infection:

high-risk groupsHIV:

Homosexuals/ Hemophiliacs IV drug abusers

 

Toxoplasma gondii: clinical features

Cat reservoir: a cat. 

Bug name is Gondii: Cat has a Gandi head. 

Cat fecal origin: cat is in the litter box. 

Causes brain infection. 

Diagnosed by CAT scan: a "CAT" scan of Gandi's brain. 

Toxic to eyes: Gandi has cat eyes. 

Lymph nodes enlarged: large nodes around neck. 

Affects fetus: small kitten in womb. 

AIDS patient commonly: cat is very skinny, like an AIDS patient.

IgA protease-producing bacteria

"Nice Strip of Ham":

Neisseria Streptococcus pneumonia Haemophilus influenza 


E. coli: major subtypes, key point of each

"HIT by E. coli outbreak":

EnteroHemorrhagic:

· HUS from Hamburgers EnteroInvasive:

· Immune-mediated Inflammation EnteroToxigenic:

· Traveller's diarrhea

 

Teratogens: placenta-crossing organisms ToRCHeS:

Toxoplasma

Rubella

CMV

Herpes simplex, Herpes zoster (varicella), Hepatitis B,C,E

Syphilis

· Alternatively: TORCHES: with Others (parvo, listeria), add HIV to H's,

Enteroviruses.

 

Toxoplasma gondii: manifestations "MCat Eats Mice": Mononucleosis-like illness

Chorioretinits/ Congenital infection

Encephalitis

Myocarditis

 

Picornavirus: features PICORNAvirus:

Positive sense

ICOsahedral

RNA virus

 

Staphylococcus aureus: causes SOFT PAINS:

Skin infections

Osteomyelitis

Food poisoning

Toxic shock syndrome

Pneumonia

Acute endocarditis

Infective arthritis

Necrotizing fasciitis

Sepsis

 

Gardnerella and Vaginalis vaginal infection diagnosis

"Take a whiff and get a clue for fishy bacteria":

Smells like fish (whiff test); clue cells seen under microscope. Gardnerella= Gram negative.

Vaginalis= Variable.

 

Endotoxin features ENDOTOXIN:

Endothelial cells/ Edema

Negative (gram- bacteria)

DIC/ Death

Outer membrane

TNF

O-antigen

X-tremely heat stable

IL-1

Nitric oxide/ Neutrophil chemotaxis

 

Hepatitis: oral-fecal transmitted types "A$$ Eaters":

Types A and E by oral-fecal route.

Hemophilius: culture requirements Read Hemophilus as "HemoFive":

· Needs Heme with Factors Five and Ten.

.

Was my post useful? Support me to keep creating useful content

Disclaimer We pay our users to write original content. If this post is your copyrighted property, please message this user or email us your request at [email protected]




 10 likes
 
7

victor3 (Basic)   2 yrs
Kk
0

love

Reply


Adedamola11 (Basic)   2 yrs
Ni
0

love

Reply


Uchekingsley (Basic)   2 yrs
Nice one
0

love

Reply


Handwriting (Basic)   2 yrs
Touche darling
0

love

Reply


Aliyu4190 (Basic)   2 yrs
Thanks
0

love

Reply




Loading...