Useful Microbiology Mnemonics Suitable For The USMLE And Medical Exams
3 years ago
Gram positive stain
Gram Positives Stain Purple (violet-blue) because of their thick Peptidoglycan layer
Enterococcus faecalis/ Enterobacter cloacae
Pseudomonas aeroginosa/ Proteus mirabilis
Staphylococcus saprophyticcus/ Serratia marcescens
Gram+: bacterial cell wall.
Gram+ has: +hick pepidoglycan layer. +eichoic acid in wall.
Gram+ has: +eichoic acid in wall.
You tell the patient: "Get UPS you fat alcoholic":
Get up=nonmotile since no flagella.
Alcoholic=commonly seen in alcoholic and nosocomial patients.
Istanbul sounds like Listambul = list + tumble.
Listeria has tumbling motility.
Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis: classic presentation
"Sore throat, Face bloat, Pi$$ coke":
Sore throat: 1 week ago
Face bloat: facial edema
Pi$$ coke: coke-coloured urine
Alternatively, short version: "Throat, bloat and coke".
Neisseria: fermentation of N. gonorrhoeae vs. N. meningitidis
Gonorrhoeae: Glucose fermenter only.
MeninGitidis: Maltose and Glucose fermenter.
Maltose fermentation is a useful property to know, since it's the classic test to distinguish the Neisseria types.
Vibrio is a genus of actively motile bacteria.
Gram staining: mechanism
"Murein gets the red out" [Allusion to an old eye-wash slogan]:
Peptidoglycan (aka murein) remains purple
during Gram staining.
The Gram negatives, devoid of murein, are red. Thus, murein prevents redness and are purple (positive).
- or just say Pur (Poor) Murein = Purple Murein
Staphylococci: Novobiocin test to distinguish coagulase negative staphylococci
Staph epidermidis stays away from the novobiocin disc like an epidemic.
Â· Therefore, epidermidis is sensitive to novobiocin.
Staph saprophyticus, much friendlier, comes up to the disc and says, "'sap?'" [short for "whassup?", ie "what's up"].
Â· Therefore, saprophyticus is novobiocin resistant.
Streptococci: classification by hemolytic ability
Gamma: Garbage (no hemolytic activity).
Alpha: Almost (almost lyse, but incomplete).
Beta: Best (complete lysis).
Common cold: viral causes
"Common cold (acute infectious rhinitis, coryza) is
PRIMArily caused by":
RNA viruses: negative stranded
"Orthodox Rhabbi's Party Around Fine Bunnies":
RNA viruses: positive stranded
"Pico Called Flavio To Return Renzo's Corona":
Picorna Calici Flavi Toga Retro Reo Corona
Streptococcus pyrogenes: antibodySPAM:
Streptococcus Pyogenes: Antibody to M protein.
Trypanosoma brucei: disease caused
"I went on a TRYP to AFRICA":
TRYPanosoma brucei causes AFRICAn sleeping sickness.
DNA viruses: morphology rule of thumbDNA:
Double-stranded Nuclear replication 'Anhedral symmetry
Â· Rule breakers: pox (cytoplasmic), parvo (single-stranded).
Proteus: disease caused
Firstly, "PROTeus hates PROTons":
So what does it do to fight the protons? It has a urease that raises the pH. Urea is in urine, so Proteus causes UTIs.
E. coli: diseases caused in presence of virulence factors DUNG: Diarrhea
Gram negative sepsis
Â· Dung, since contract E. coli from dung-contaminated water.
Kidney transplant virus
BK virus is associated with kidney transplants.
Clostridium difficile: disease caused
"Difficult to be in a Closet with someone having explosive foul smelling diarrhea, because it would smell and there would be no air in there. Clostridium Difficile causes explosive foul smelling diarrhea and is an anaeorbe (no air).
Urease positive organisms PUNCH:
Proteus (leads to alkaline urine)
Ureaplasma (renal calculi)
Cryptoccocus (the fungus)
Pneumonia: acute pneumonia infiltrates from different causes
Acute pneumonia caused by Pyogenic bacteria: PMN infiltrate.
Acute pneumonia caused by Miscellaneous microbes: Mononuclear infiltrate.
Pseudomonas detailsÂ· Imagine a hospitalized patient with the following.
Patient: bug commonly infects nosocomial.
Oxygen tank: oxidase positive.
IV bag: has glucose and lactose, so its OK to give because its a non-lactose fermenter.
Why giving oxygen? Because it commonly causes pneumonia.
IV in the arm: supposed to signify sepsis.
The foley: UTI.
Burn on his foot: can infect burns.
Entameoba histolytica: disease caused and action
EntAmoeba causes Amoebic dysEntery.
Action: histo (cell) lytic (burst), so it bursts cells.
Obligate anaerobes: members worth knowingABC:
Streptococci: Quellung reaction: positive sign, Strep type confirmed"Quell-lung":
Quell: Capsules swell [+ve test].
Lung: S. pnuemonia [type confirmed].
Â· You get pneumonia in your lung.
Nematodes: ones spreading by egg ingestion
Enterobius vermicularis spread by ingestion of eggs (vs skin invasion or insect bite)
Tetanus: treatment for infection
Mycobacterium tuberculosis: culture identification
"Rough, Tough, Buff":
Rough: colony isn't smooth but rough like breadcrumbs.
Tough: colony stuck to plate well, and tough to remove.
Buff: buff is a color, a cream/coffee shade.
Streptococcus pyogenes: virulence factors = SMASHED: Streptolysins
Psedomonas aeruginosa: features AERUGINOSA:
UTIs, burns, injuries
Odor of grapes
Slime capsule sometimes (in CF pt)
Influenza infection: clinical manifestations
"Having Flu Symptoms Can Make Moaning Children A Nightmare":
Meningitis: risk factors
"Can Induce Severe Attacks Of Head PAINS":
Infections (systemic, esp.
Endocarditis: indications for surgery PUS RIVER:
Prosthetic valve endocarditis (most cases)
Supporative local complications with conduction abnormalities
Resection of mycotic aneurysm
Ineffective antimicrobial therapy (eg Vs fungi)
Valvular damage (significant)
Embolization (repeated systemic)
Refractory congestive heart failure
Endocarditis: causes of culture negative endocarditis
"With Negative Tests, Investigators Should Focus Attention Somewhere Meaningful":
Timing (cultures drawn at end of chronic course)
obligate Intracellular organisms
Slow growing fastidious organisms
Antibiotic used previously
Subacute right-sided endocarditis
Endocarditis: lab results suggesting it
"High Tech Lab Results Point At Endocarditis":
Red blood cell casta
Vaccines types: STARK:
Streptococcus pyogenes causes NIPPLES:
Necrotising fasciitis and myositis
Erysipelas and cellulitis
Scarlet fever/ Streptococcal TSS
AIDS pathogens (T-cell suppression) worth knowing
"The Major Pathogens Concerning Complete T-Cell Collapse":
M. avium intracellulare
Candida albicans Cryptococcus neoformans
Tuberculosis CMV Cryptosporidium parvum
"Some Bacteria Have An Effective Paste Surrounding Membrane Yielding Pseudo Fort, Bypassing Killing":
Strep pneumonia Bacteroides H. influenza Anthrax (B. anthracis) E. coli Pasteurella Salmonella Menigitidis (N. Menigitidis) Yersinia pestis Pseudomonas Francisella Brucella Klebsiella
Bug that induce food poisoning
"Eating Contaminated Stuff Causes Very Big Smelly Vomit":
E. coli O157-H7 [undercooked meat, esp. hamburgers]
Clostridium botulinum [canned foods]
Salmonella [poultry, meat, eggs]
Vibrio parahaemolyticus [seafood]
Bacillus cereus [reheated rice]
Staphylococcus aureus [meats, mayo, custard]
Clostridium perfringens [reheated meat]
Vibrio vulnificus [seafood]
Fishy odor (sometimes)
Flagyl (metronidazole) Rx
Chlamydia: elementary vs. initial body location
Homosexuals/ Hemophiliacs IV drug abusers
Toxoplasma gondii: clinical features
Cat reservoir: a cat.
Bug name is Gondii: Cat has a Gandi head.
Cat fecal origin: cat is in the litter box.
Causes brain infection.
Diagnosed by CAT scan: a "CAT" scan of Gandi's brain.
Toxic to eyes: Gandi has cat eyes.
Lymph nodes enlarged: large nodes around neck.
Affects fetus: small kitten in womb.
AIDS patient commonly: cat is very skinny, like an AIDS patient.
IgA protease-producing bacteria
"Nice Strip of Ham":
Neisseria Streptococcus pneumonia Haemophilus influenza
E. coli: major subtypes, key point of each
"HIT by E. coli outbreak":
Â· HUS from Hamburgers EnteroInvasive:
Â· Immune-mediated Inflammation EnteroToxigenic:
Â· Traveller's diarrhea
Teratogens: placenta-crossing organisms ToRCHeS:
Herpes simplex, Herpes zoster (varicella), Hepatitis B,C,E
Â· Alternatively: TORCHES: with Others (parvo, listeria), add HIV to H's,
Toxoplasma gondii: manifestations "My Cat Eats Mice": Mononucleosis-like illness
Chorioretinits/ Congenital infection
Picornavirus: features PICORNAvirus:
Staphylococcus aureus: causes SOFT PAINS:
Toxic shock syndrome
Gardnerella and Vaginalis vaginal infection diagnosis
"Take a whiff and get a clue for fishy bacteria":
Smells like fish (whiff test); clue cells seen under microscope. Gardnerella= Gram negative.
Endotoxin features ENDOTOXIN:
Endothelial cells/ Edema
Negative (gram- bacteria)
X-tremely heat stable
Nitric oxide/ Neutrophil chemotaxis
Hepatitis: oral-fecal transmitted types "A$$ Eaters":
Types A and E by oral-fecal route.
Hemophilius: culture requirements Read Hemophilus as "HemoFive":
Â· Needs Heme with Factors Five and Ten..
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